Sunday, 26 October 2014

CHINA: Foreign student scholarships spark anger as fees rise

FRANCE: Low fees but jobs needed to meet costs

SINGAPORE: Rising fees cloud international hub status

MALAYSIA: Loan defaulters barred from leaving

GLOBAL: Public higher education versus private

Issue No:340

At the tertiary level, public expenditure per student in both public and private institutions averaged US$9,221 in OECD countries in 2012, the Education at a Glance report says. But the amount varied from about US$2,000 in Chile to more than US$17,000 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden – the four countries where the share of private spending is small or negligible.

In all countries with available data, except Hungary and Latvia, public expenditure per student is greater for public than private institutions. But patterns in the allocation of public funds to public and private institutions differ, the OECD analysts say.

In Denmark and the Netherlands, at least 90% of students are enrolled in public universities and most public money goes to these institutions. In the two countries, private funds complement public spending to varying degrees although private expenditure is less than 6% of total spending on public and private institutions in Denmark but above 28% in the Netherlands.

In Belgium, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland and Sweden, public expenditure goes to both public and private institutions. Government allocations per student in some private institutions is at least 58% and more than 100% of the level of public spending per student in public universities.

However, these countries also have different participation patterns. In Hungary, Iceland and Sweden, at least 80% of students are enrolled in public universities, whereas in Belgium and Estonia, they are mainly in government-dependent private institutions. In all three first-mentioned nations, the share of expenditure on private tertiary institutions is below the OECD average, while in the remaining two countries, taxpayers’ money goes mainly to private universities.

Public expenditure on tertiary education amounts to nearly one-quarter of total public education spending on average across OECD countries. But in the OECD and partner countries, the percentages range from less than 16% in Korea, to 32% in Finland, 36% in Canada and 38% in Turkey.

Grants and loans to students

OECD research indicates that a robust financial support system is important for ensuring good outcomes for higher education students, and that the type of aid is also critical, the report says. A key question in many OECD countries is whether financial support for students should be provided primarily in the form of grants or loans. Advocates of student loans argue that these allow available resources to be spread further.

If the amount spent on grants were used to guarantee or subsidise loans instead, aid would be available to more students, and overall access to higher education would increase. Loans also shift some of the cost of education on to those who benefit most from higher education, namely the individual student, and reflect the high private returns of completing tertiary education.

Opponents argue that student loans are less effective than grants in encouraging low-income students to pursue further education. They also argue that loans may be less efficient than anticipated because of the various types of support provided to borrowers or lenders and the costs of administration and servicing.

Finally, the report notes that a high level of student debt may have adverse effects both for students and for governments if large numbers of students are unable to repay their loans.

Allocations to higher education

OECD countries spend an average of about 22% of their public budgets for tertiary education on support for students “and private entities”. In Australia, Chile, Denmark, Iceland, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the UK and the US, government support for students accounts for more than 25% of public spending on tertiary education.

Only Argentina, the Czech Republic and Indonesia spend less than 7% of total public spending on the tertiary sector in supporting their students. In the Czech Republic, subsidies for students’ grants are sent directly to institutions which are responsible for distributing them among students.

A dozen of the 36 countries for which data are available rely exclusively on scholarships, grants and transfer payments to private institutions. Iceland provides only student loans while other countries make a combination of grants and loans available. Both types of support are used extensively in Australia, Chile, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.

In general, the countries that offer student loans are also those in which public support for students comprises the largest proportion of all public spending on tertiary education. In most cases, these countries also spend an above-average proportion of their tertiary education budgets on grants and scholarships, the report says.

Monday, 20 October 2014

MYANMAR: Students to hold emergency meeting over education law

CHINA: Universities to get more autonomy

GLOBAL: How Germany managed to abolish university tuition fees

GLOBAL: Academic reputation affects citation count

AUSTRALIA: Graduates of top universities earn more

Sunday, 7 September 2014

SOUTH KOREA: Lowest-ranked universities to see cut in funding

GLOBAL: Different ways of learning for students abroad

Vietnam: Universities still have little autonomy

Last update 16:02 | 31/08/2014 by Vietnam net bridge

Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung has bemoaned the slow process of delegating more power to universities to enhance their autonomy, saying relevant agencies should accelerate the process to increase the quality of education.

Chairing a meeting on autonomy at public universities in Hanoi Tuesday, Prime Minister Dung said that making universities responsible for all their operations is a right policy and has delivered initial positive results.

According to Dung, their autonomy aims to create a motivation and a breakthrough to improve the quality of education and facilitate sustainable development of universities.

However, the process has been moving slowly and should be speeded up so that universities can soon be autonomous in terms of finance, organization, training, curriculums and issuance of degrees and diplomas, Dung added.

At the meeting, participants also discussed the implementation of such a policy. Professor Dr. Le Vinh Danh, president of Ton Duc Thang University, said the tuition cap should be removed. Tuition fees should be decided by factors such as training quality and demand of learners, he added.

President of Vietnam National University of Hanoi Phung Xuan Nha shared the same view, saying the quality of education and learners’ needs should be used as criteria for setting tuition fees and that the quality of universities should be judged independently and publicly.

According to some university leaders, they have limited professional autonomy in terms of issues like providing new courses and curriculums, so they want more autonomy regarding these matters.

Dung told the Government Office and the Ministry of Education and Training to gather opinions of ministries, agencies and universities presented at the meeting to improve a draft resolution on autonomy for universities before it is discussed at the Government’s regular meeting this month.

According to Dung, the draft resolution needs to pay special attention to personnel, enrollment, new curriculums and scientific research.
SGT/VNN

MALAYSIA:Not guilty, says first academic charged with sedition

Emilia Tan Issue No:33

Azmi Sharom, a law professor at the University of Malaya, was on 2 September charged with sedition in a court in Kuala Lumpur. The public galleries were packed with academics and students from the university, and other supporters and rights activists. He pleaded not guilty.

Azmi is the first Malaysian academic to be charged under the 1948 Sedition Act, although a number of opposition politicians have faced sedition charges in recent weeks under the law that dates back to the British colonial era.

The professor, who was granted bail during the Tuesday hearing, will appear again before the court in October. He said in a statement later that he would fight the charge, saying it was a blow to academic freedom and freedom of expression.

“I hope reason will prevail,” he told well wishers at the court. Sedition can carry a jail term of up to three years.

Shocking charges

Azmi said he was “shocked” at the charges for comments he made relating to a Malaysian online newspaper on 14 August, on a 2009 crisis in the state government of Perak, describing the events of the time as “legally wrong”.

“My statements were based on established case law and democratic principles. They were given in my capacity as a law lecturer of 24 years standing,” he said.

Academics have been horrified at the charge, which they see as being used to silence anyone who criticises the government.

“If you believe in world-class universities, academics should be allowed to make professional comments. He [Azmi] is from the law faculty. He shouldn't be charged,” Rosli Mahat, vice-president of the University of Malaya academic staff association, told The Malaysian Insider online newspaper.

Rosli, who was at court with many other university staff and students to observe the proceedings, said the charges were “an affront” to the university.

Lau Yi Leong, secretary for national affairs for the Malaysia Youth and Students’ Democratic Movement, said academics were simply expressing their opinions in their professional capacity. Students fear they could be next in the firing line.

“Furthermore, it is undoubtedly clear that, at a time when new students are being enrolled into universities, it is the government’s intention to also warn the new students not to be too keen in applying their knowledge to social, political and economic issues,” Lau said.

Vince Tan, secretary-general of Progressive, University of Malaya – a student group – said in a statement last Tuesday: “Such charges show that the authorities have no regard for academic freedom, when an academician can be punished for commenting on an issue related to his field of study.

“When the intention of the government [is] to repeal a particular legislation, it should no longer be used to prosecute anyone. Such prosecution is also in utter disregard of the intention of the government of the day,” Tan added.

PM promised to repeal the law

Two years ago Prime Minister Najib Razak promised to repeal the 1948 Sedition Act and said it was to be replaced by a new National Harmony Act.

In a statement this week, the prime minister's office reiterated that the act would be repealed and replaced with the National Harmony Bill, which was currently being drafted. No timetable was given.

The Centre for Independent Journalism, or CIJ, added to the criticism, saying the continued use of the Sedition Act “makes a mockery” of the prime minister’s legislative reforms and pledge to repeal the act more than two years ago.

CIJ said in a statement from its directors Sonia Randhawa and Jac SM Kee that “too liberal” a use of the Sedition Act would stunt the function of universities and institutions of learning to the point that they would not be able to function appropriately.

“Restrictions must be necessary and proportionate. To censure legal opinion without demonstrating the threat to national security, public order or public morality is unnecessary and disproportionate,” the statement read.

Some activists believe that the move could backfire on the government and lead to stronger demands to bring forward the repeal of the Sedition Act just as the government previously changed the Internal Security Act that affected students’ political activities and academic freedom.

A government spokesperson said that academics, like other citizens, must adhere to the law. 

Wednesday, 3 September 2014

បទ​វិភាគ៖ តើ​កត្តា​អ្វី​ខ្លះ​ដែល​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​គុណភាព​អប់រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា​មិន​ទាន់​ប្រសើរ?

ដោយ វណ្ណ វិចារ   (Source, RFA)

2014-08-30


ក្រសួង​អប់រំ យុវជន និង​កីឡា ប្រកាស​គោល​នយោបាយ​កំណែ​ទម្រង់​ស៊ី​ជម្រៅ ដើម្បី​ធានា​គុណភាព​អប់រំ​ឲ្យ​កាន់​តែ​ប្រសើរ។ កំណែ​ទម្រង់​ដំបូង​បំផុត​របស់​ក្រសួង​អប់រំ គឺ​ជា​ការ​ប្រឆាំង​អំពើ​ពុក​រលួយ​ពេល​ប្រឡង ដោយ​អនុវត្ត​ពាក្យ​ស្លោក អ្នក​ចេះ គឺ​ជាប់។

ភាគី​ពាក់ព័ន្ធ​ទាំងអស់​ចាត់​ទុក​ថា លទ្ធផល​ប្រឡង​បាក់​ឌុប​ឆ្នាំ​នេះ ជា​លទ្ធផល​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​ដែល​បង្ហាញ​ពី​គុណភាព​អប់រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា និង​ប្រសិទ្ធភាព​នៃ​កំណែ​ទម្រង់។

តើ​វិធី​ដែល​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ប្រើ​នេះ អាច​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​គុណភាព​នៃ​ការ​អប់រំ​បាន​ប្រសើរ​មែន ឬ​យ៉ាង​ណា?
វិធានការ​កម្ចាត់​អំពើ​ពុក​រលួយ​ពេល​ប្រឡង​បាក់​ឌុប​នៅ​ឆ្នាំ​នេះ បាន​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​បេក្ខជន​ជាង ៦​ម៉ឺន​នាក់ ឬ​ប្រមាណ​ជាង ៧៥% ប្រឡង​ធ្លាក់។ ចំនួន​សិស្ស​ប្រឡង​ធ្លាក់ មិន​ត្រឹម​តែ​បង្ហាញ​ពី​ប្រសិទ្ធភាព​នៃ​ការ​ពង្រឹង​វិន័យ​ពេល​ប្រឡង​ ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ទេ ប៉ុន្តែ​វា​ក៏​បង្ហាញ​ពី​កម្រិត​ដ៏​ទន់​ខ្សោយ​នៃ​គុណភាព​អប់រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា ដែរ។

រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​បាន​ដាក់​ចេញ​វិធានការ​លើក​កម្ពស់​វិស័យ​អប់រំ​មួយ​ចំនួន រួម​មាន ការ​រៀបចំ​ផែនការ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​អប់រំ​រយៈពេល ៥​ឆ្នាំ​ម្តង គោល​នយោបាយ​ស្ដីពី​ការ​អប់រំ​បច្ចេកទេស គោល​នយោបាយ​ស្ដីពី​ធនធាន​មនុស្ស​ក្នុង​វិស័យ​អប់រំ គោល​នយោបាយ​ស្ដីពី​គ្រូបង្រៀន និង​គោល​នយោបាយ​ជាតិ​ស្ដីពី​ការ​អភិវឌ្ឍ​យុវជន ជាដើម។ មិន​តែ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល ក៏​ថែម​ទាំង​បង្កើន​ចំនួន​ថវិកា​ជាតិ​វិស័យ​អប់រំ​ឲ្យ​ច្រើន​លើស​ក្រសួង​ណាៗ ​ទាំងអស់។ នៅ​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៤ នេះ ថវិកា​ជាតិ​ដែល​ក្រសួង​អប់រំ គ្រោង​ចំណាយ​មាន​ចំនួន​ជាង ៣០០​លាន​ដុល្លារ​សហរដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក។ បន្ថែម​ពី​នេះ ការ​ផ្តល់​ឱកាស​ឲ្យ​វិស័យ​ឯកជន​បើក​គ្រឹះស្ថាន​អប់រំ ក្នុង​ការ​ជំរុញ​គុណភាព​អប់រំ​ទៀត​ផង។

ទោះ​ជា​យ៉ាង​ណា​ក្តី យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ គោល​នយោបាយ និង​បរិមាណ​ថវិកា​នេះ ទំនង​ជា​មិន​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​ការ​អប់រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា មាន​គុណភាព​ខ្ពស់​នោះ​ឡើយ។ គុណភាព​អប់រំ​នៃ​ប្រទេស​មួយ​ល្អ ឬ​មិន​ល្អ អាស្រ័យ​លើ​គ្រូបង្រៀន។ បើ​មាន​គ្រូ​ល្អ ទើប​សិស្ស​ល្អ ហើយ​បើ​មាន​សិស្ស​ល្អ​ច្រើន សង្គម​ក៏​ល្អ។ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែ រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា ហាក់​ដូច​ជា​បែរ​ខ្នង​ដាក់​គ្រូបង្រៀន​ទៅ​វិញ។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ប្រាក់​ខែ​ចាយ​មិន​គ្រប់ គ្រូ​ប្រពន្ធ​ល្អ ឬ​ក្រ​ប្រពន្ធ​រអ៊ូ​ហ្នឹង​ឯង។ ប្រាក់​ខែ​គ្រូ​បឋម​សិក្សា​នៅ​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៤ នេះ ប្រមាណ​ជាង ៤​សែន​រៀល​ក្នុង​១​ខែ បើ​គិត​ជា​ថ្ងៃ ក្នុង​១​ថ្ងៃ​បាន​ជាង ១​ម៉ឺន​រៀល។ កម្រៃ​នេះ គឺ​ប្រហាក់​ប្រហែល​នឹង​កម្មករ​សំណង់ ដែល​ធ្វើ​ការងារ​ប្រាំបី​ម៉ោង​ក្នុង​១​ថ្ងៃ​ដូច​គ្នា។

ថ្លៃ​សាំង​មួយ​លីត្រ​ជាង ៥​ពាន់​រៀល អង្ករ ១​គីឡូ​ជាង ២​ពាន់​រៀល ត្រី​សាច់​តម្លៃ​លើស​មួយ​ម៉ឺន​ក្នុង​១​គីឡូ ចង​ដៃ​ការ ចូល​បុណ្យ កូន​ទៅ​រៀន មើល​ជំងឺ សុទ្ធ​តែ​ត្រូវ​ប្រើ​លុយ​ទាំងអស់។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​មិន​ជ្រើស​រើស​យក​វិធី​តវ៉ា ឬ​ធ្វើ​បាតុកម្ម ដើម្បី​ទាមទារ​ដំឡើង​ប្រាក់​ខែ​ទេ ការ​នេះ​ប្រហែល​ជា​ពួក​គាត់​គិត​ថា វា​មិន​បាន​ផល និង​មិន​ចង់​ឈឺ​សាច់​ដោយសារ​សន្តិសុខ​វាយ​ក៏​មិន​ដឹង។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​មួយ​ចំនួន​ធំ បាន​ជ្រើស​យក​វិធី​ផ្សេងៗ​ដើម្បី​រក​លុយ។ គ្រូ​ជាន់​ក​សិស្ស​ឲ្យ​មក​រៀន​កួរ គ្រូ​លក់​មេរៀន និង​វិញ្ញាសា​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស លក់​ពិន្ទុ គ្រូ​លក់​នំ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ថ្នាក់ រត់​ម៉ូតូ​ឌុប និង​ឆ្លៀត​យក​ម៉ោង​បង្រៀន​ទៅ​រក​ស៊ី​ខាង​ក្រៅ ជាដើម។

គ្រូបង្រៀន​បឋម​សិក្សា ត្រូវ​បង្រៀន​យ៉ាង​តិច ៤​ម៉ោង​ក្នុង​១​ថ្ងៃ និង ៥​ថ្ងៃ​ក្នុង​១​អាទិត្យ។ ដើម្បី​បង្រៀន ៤​ម៉ោង​តាម​និយាម​គរុកោសល្យ គ្រូ​ម្នាក់ៗ​ត្រូវ​រៀបចំ​កិច្ច​តែង​ការ​បង្រៀន រៀបចំ​សម្ភារៈ​ឧបទេស និង​សិក្សា​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​ឯកសារ​ពាក់ព័ន្ធ​មួយ​ចំនួន​ទៀត ដោយ​ចំណាយ​ពេល​មិន​តិច​ជាង ៤​ម៉ោង​ទៀត​ក្នុង​១​ថ្ងៃ​ឡើយ។ បើ​រវល់​រៀបចំ​កិច្ច​តែង​ការ មាន​អង្ករ​ឯណា​ច្រក​ឆ្នាំង? គ្រូ​រៀបចំ​កិច្ច​តែង​ការ​បង្រៀន​នៅ​ពេល​ដែល​មាន​ថ្នាក់​លើ​មក​ត្រួត​ ពិនិត្យ​ម្តងម្កាល​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ។

មន្ត្រី​មន្ទីរ​អប់រំ​ខេត្ត​មួយ​ចំនួន ចុះ​ទៅ​ត្រួត​ពិនិត្យ​នៅ​ថ្នាក់​ការិយាល័យ​ស្រុក​ម្តងៗ ថ្នាក់​ស្រុក​រត់​ខ្វែង​ដៃ​ខ្វែង​ជើង​រក​កាប់​កាប៉ា កាប់​ឆ្កែ​ឲ្យ​មេៗ​ពិសារ។ មាន​សាច់​ហើយ​អត់​ទឹក​ម៉េច​បាន តែ​សូម​ទោស​អស់​លោក​ធំៗ​ទាំង​នោះ មិន​ចេះ​អា​ទឹក​ស​ឡើយ។ កូន​ចៅ​ថ្នាក់​ស្រុក​ត្រូវ​រៀបចំ​ទឹក​ខ្មៅ ABC ទើប​វា​ស្រួល​ក្រពះ​មេ។ ការ​ហូប​ចុក​ស្នាក់​នៅ​ប៉ុណ្ណឹង​មិន​គ្រប់គ្រាន់​ឡើយ កូន​ចៅ​ក៏​ត្រូវ​រៀបចំ​ស្រោម​សំបុត្រ​ឲ្យ​មេ​ថែម​ទៀត​ផង។ បើ​ស្រុក​ណា​ទទួល​មេ​ដិតដល់ ស្រុក​នោះ​ច្បាស់​ជា​មាន​របាយការណ៍​មិន​អន់​ទេ តែ​បើ​ស្រុក​ណា​រខេករខាក​វិញ ប្រាកដ​ជា​មិន​រួច​ខ្លួន​ឡើយ។ ពាក្យ​ស្លោក​នៅ​គរុកោសល្យ​សរសេរ​ថា លោកគ្រូ​អ្នកគ្រូ​ជា​វិស្វករ​នៃ​គំនិត។ ប៉ុន្តែ​បើ​វិស្វករ​គំនិត ជំនាញ​ខាង​គាប​លុយ​សិស្ស និង​ពុក​រលួយ​នោះ តើ​គំនិត​របស់​កូន​សិស្ស​ខ្មែរ​នឹង​ទៅ​ជា​យ៉ាង​ណា?

កូន​សិស្ស​ដែល​រង​ឥទ្ធិពល​ផ្ទាល់​ពី​គ្រូ​សាលា​រដ្ឋ មិន​មែន​ជា​កូន​ចៅ​មន្ត្រី​ធំៗ​ក្នុង​ជួរ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ឡើយ។ កូន​ចៅ​មន្ត្រី​ធំៗ​ទាំង​នោះ រៀន​នៅ​សាលា​ឯកជន​ល្អៗ​ដែល​បង់​ថ្លៃ​សាលា​រាប់​ពាន់​ដុល្លារ​ក្នុង​១​ខែៗ។ រៀន​នៅ​សាលា​មាន​បាយ​ញ៉ាំ​ស្រេច មាន​ឡាន​ទំនើប​ជូន​ទៅ​សាលា អ្នក​ខ្លះ​មិន​ទាំង​រៀន​អក្សរ​ខ្មែរ​ផង។ ពេល​ធំ​ឡើង សម្ដេច ឯកឧត្តម លោក​ជំទាវ អស់​លោក​ធំៗ ក៏​បញ្ជូន​កូន​ចៅ​ទៅ​សិក្សា​បន្ត​នៅ​ក្រៅ​ប្រទេស​ទៀត។ លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី ហ៊ុន សែន និយាយ​ថា កូន​អ្នក​មាន​កូន​អ្នក​ក្រ​កើត​មក​មិន​ដែល​អាណា​រៀន​មហាវិទ្យាល័យ​ទេ គឺ​រៀន​ពី​ថ្នាក់​មត្តេយ្យ​ដូច​គ្នា។ រៀន​ដូច​គ្នា​មែន តែ​កូន​ចៅ​សម្ដេច ឯកឧត្តម រៀន​នៅ​សិង្ហបុរី អូស្ត្រាលី អាមេរិក បើ​រៀន​នៅ​ស្រុក​ខ្មែរ ក៏​ត្រូវ​រៀន​សាលា​កាលីបៗ​ដែរ។ កូន​អ្នក​មធ្យម ក៏​រៀន​ឯកជន​បង់​រាប់​រយ​ដុល្លារ មិន​ចម្លែក​អី​ទេ កូន​គ្រូបង្រៀន កូន​នគរបាល​តូចតាច កូន​មន្ត្រី​យោធា រៀន​សាលា​រដ្ឋ ត្រូវ​គ្រូ​ជំរិត​ទារ​លុយ​រាល់​ថ្ងៃ។

កាល​ពី​សម័យ​រដ្ឋ​កម្ពុជា ប្រាក់​ខែ​គ្រូ​ចាយ​មិន​គ្រប់​មែន តែ​គ្រូ​ដូច​ជា​មិន​សូវ​យ៉ាប់​ដូច​សព្វថ្ងៃ​ទេ។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ស្រុក​ស្រែ​អាច​រក​ត្រី​សាច់​ម្ហូប​អាហារ រក​អនុផល​ព្រៃ​ឈើ​ចិញ្ចឹម​ជីវិត​បាន​ដោយ​ខ្លួន​ឯង។ ដល់​ពេល​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ចតុកោណ​របស់​សម្ដេច​ដំណើរ​ការ រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ចាប់​ផ្ដើម​លក់​ខ្ទេច​លក់​ខ្ទី លក់​ដី​លក់​ព្រៃ​ព្រឹក្សា លក់​សម្បត្តិ​រដ្ឋ លក់​បឹង បំផ្លាញ​ត្រី ទំនិញ​ឡើង​ថ្លៃ​គ្រប់​បែប​យ៉ាង។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ក៏​ត្រូវ​ពឹង​លើ​ប្រាក់​ខែ ដើម្បី​ទិញ​សព្វ​ទិញ​គ្រប់។ ទិញ​វា​មិន​សំខាន់​ទេ សំខាន់​ត្រង់​ថា វា​អត់​លុយ​ទិញ។ ឥឡូវ​នេះ យើង​ពិនិត្យ​មើល​គោល​នយោបាយ​របស់​គ្រូបង្រៀន​វិញ​ម្តង ថា​តើ​គោល​នយោបាយ​ដែល​ចែង​លើ​ក្រដាស​នេះ អនុវត្ត​បាន​ហើយ​ឬ​នៅ? ខ្លឹមសារ​នៃ​គោល​នយោបាយ​នោះ ក៏​មាន​ស្ទើរ​គ្រប់​ចំណុច​ដែល​គ្រូ​ត្រូវ​ការ ដើម្បី​បង្រៀន​សិស្ស​ឲ្យ​មាន​គុណភាព។ គោល​នយោបាយ​ជាតិ​មាន​ចែង​ពី​ការ​លើក​ទឹក​ចិត្ត​គ្រូ ការ​ឧបត្ថម្ភ​ព្យាបាល​ជំងឺ ការ​ដំឡើង​ឋានៈ​តាម​កម្រិត​ការ​បំពេញ​ការងារ ជាដើម។ គោល​នយោបាយ​ល្អ ល្អ​គ្រប់​ចំណុច តែ​ការ​អនុវត្ត​គោល​នយោបាយ​វិញ​មិន​ខុស​អី​នឹង​បាច​អង្កាម​ច្រាស់​ខ្យល់​ទេ។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ដែល​បាន​ប័ណ្ណ​សរសើរ​ជា​គ្រូ​ល្អ ច្រើន​តែ​ជា​អ្នក​ដែល​ស្និទ្ធ​នឹង​នាយក​សាលា មាន​បង​ប្អូន​ធ្វើ​ការ​នៅ​មន្ទីរ​អប់រំ ហើយ​អ្នក​ខ្លះ​ធ្វើ​គ្រូ​អស់​ជាង ៣០​ឆ្នាំ មិន​ទាន់​បាន​ប័ណ្ណ​សរសើរ​ម្តង​ផង។ ពេល​ចូល​និវត្តន៍ ទៅ​បើក​ប្រាក់​ខែ​សោធន​និវត្តន៍​នៅ​មន្ទីរ​សង្គមកិច្ច ក៏​ត្រូវ​គេ​កាត់​ប្រាក់​ខែ​ដោយ​មិន​ដឹង​មូលហេតុ​ទៀត។ ចង់​ប្រាប់​សម្ដេច​ដែរ តែ​ប្រាប់​យ៉ាង​ម៉េច​ទៅ​បាន បើ​សម្ដេច​មាន​ការងារ​ច្រើន​ម្លឹងៗ អ៊ីចឹង​ចេះ​តែ​ទ្រាំ​សិន​ទៅ។

ពេល​គ្រូបង្រៀន​ឈឺ ឬ​ស្លាប់ នាយក​សាលា​ក៏​ចាប់​ផ្ដើម​រៃអង្គាស​លុយ​សិស្ស​ឲ្យ​គ្រូ​ព្យាបាល​ជំងឺ ឬ​ចូល​បុណ្យ។ គ្រូ​ស្លាប់​វា​គ្រាន់​ទេ ព្រោះ​មាន​លុយ​សមាគម​បុគ្គលិក​សិក្សា​ខ្មែរ ដែល​កាត់​ប្រាក់​ខែ​គ្រូ​រាល់​ខែ​នោះ​ផ្តល់​ឲ្យ​ត្រឡប់​មក​វិញ​បាន ១​លាន ២​លាន​រៀល ​ដែរ គ្រាន់​ឲ្យ​កូន​ចៅ​យក​ធ្វើ​បុណ្យ​ឧទ្ទិស​កុសល​ជូន។ តែ​បើ​ឈឺ​វិញ​នោះ ប្រពន្ធ​កូន​ប្ដី​សី ត្រូវ​រត់​រក​លុយ​ខ្ចី​បុល​ចងការ លក់​គោ លក់​ស្រែ យក​មើល​ជំងឺ​ឲ្យ​ពួក​គាត់។ មិន​មាន​មន្ទីរពេទ្យ​រដ្ឋ​ណា​មួយ​ចេញ​បញ្ជា​បញ្ចុះ​ថ្លៃ​ព្យាបាល​ជំងឺ​ឲ្យ​ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ឡើយ។ គ្រូបង្រៀន​ក៏​មិន​មាន​សៀវភៅ​អត្តសញ្ញាណកម្ម​បញ្ជាក់​ពី​ភាព​ក្រីក្រ​ដែរ ព្រោះ​កម្រិត​ជីវភាព​ពួក​គាត់​វា​នៅ​លើ​កម្រិត​វាស់​វែង​វាយ​តម្លៃ​ពី​ភាព​ ក្រីក្រ។ បើ​អត់​លុយ ពេទ្យ​ចាំ​តែ​ពេទ្យ​មើល​តើ! ចង់​វះ​កាត់ ទាល់​តែ​មើល​លុយ​សិន។ ហេតុ​នេះ ក្បាល​ណា​អា​សក់​អា​ហ្នឹង​ហើយ។
ចំពោះ​ការ​ដំឡើង​ឋានៈ​វិញ មិន​ខុស​អី​នឹង​ក្រសួង​ដទៃៗ​ទៀត​ទេ។ ចង់​ឡើង​ទាល់​មាន​សែ មាន​សែ​ក៏​ឡើង​មិន​ទាន់​អ្នក​មាន​ប្រាក់​ដែរ។ អ្នក​ដែល​ចង់​ធ្វើ​នាយក​សាលា ត្រូវ​តែ​ស្អាតស្អំ​ស្មោះ​ត្រង់​ចំពោះ​បក្ស ហើយ​ក៏​ត្រូវ​មាន​ប្រាក់​ខ្លះ​ផង។ មាន​គ្រូបង្រៀន​មិន​តិច​ទេ ដែល​ប៉ុនប៉ង​រក​ទ្រនំ​ថ្មី ព្រោះ​តែ​មិន​អាច​ទ្រាំ​ចំពោះ​ទារុណកម្ម​គំនិត​នេះ​បាន។

បញ្ហា​គ្រូបង្រៀន​មាន​ច្រើន​រាប់​សិប​ជំពូក​ក៏ដោយ ក៏​គ្រូបង្រៀន​មួយ​ចំនួន​ធំ ខំ​បង្រៀន​សិស្ស​ដោយ​ក្តី​អាណិត​ដែរ។ គ្រូ​ចង់​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស​ចេះ គ្រូ​លើក​ទឹក​ចិត្ត​សិស្ស​ឲ្យ​ខំ​រៀន គ្រូបង្រៀន​បឋម​សិក្សា​ម្នាក់​បង្រៀន​សិស្ស ៥​ថ្នាក់​ម្នាក់​ឯង​ក៏​មាន។

អ្នក​ខំ​ចេះ​តែ​ខំ អ្នក​ស្រួល​ចេះ​តែ​បន្ត​ស្រួល ទាំង​នេះ​ជា​បាបកម្ម​របស់​គ្រូបង្រៀន ឬ​យ៉ាង​ណា? ការ​ចាត់​តាំង​គ្រូបង្រៀន​ឲ្យ​ទៅ​ដល់​គ្រប់​ច្រកល្ហក​ទូទាំង​ប្រទេស នៅ​តែ​ជា​បញ្ហា​មិន​ទាន់​អាច​ដោះ ស្រាយ​បាន​នៅ​ឡើយ។ គ្រូ​គរ​ជើង​នៅ​ទីប្រជុំជន តែ​បើ​តាម​ជនបទ​ដាច់​ស្រយាល គ្រប់​សាលា​ខ្វះ​គ្រូ​រាល់​ឆ្នាំ។ បញ្ហា​របស់​គ្រូបង្រៀន មិន​ត្រូវ​បាន​ដោះស្រាយ​ឲ្យ​មាន​ប្រសិទ្ធភាព ហើយ​កម្មវិធី​សិក្សា និង​វិធីសាស្ត្រ​បង្រៀន​នោះ ក៏​អភិវឌ្ឍ​លឿន​ទៅ​ទៀត។ តាំង​ពី​ចុង​ទសវត្សរ៍​ឆ្នាំ​៩០ មក ក្រសួង​អប់រំ បាន​ប្ដូរ​វិធីសាស្ត្រ​ក្នុង​ការ​បង្រៀន​ពី​គ្រូ​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល ទៅ​ជា​សិស្ស​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​វិញ​ម្តង។ វិធីសាស្ត្រ​ថ្មី​នេះ តម្រូវ​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស​ចែក​ចេញ​ជា​ក្រុម​អាន សិក្សា​ស្វែង​យល់​ដោយ​ខ្លួន​ឯង មាន​សៀវភៅ​សិក្សា​គោល​គ្រប់​ដៃ និង​មាន​គ្រូបង្រៀន​ជា​អ្នក​សម្រប​សម្រួល។ ប៉ុន្តែ​នៅ​ស្រុក​ខ្មែរ សិស្ស​មួយ​ថ្នាក់​មាន​ពី ៤០​នាក់ ទៅ ៦០​នាក់ សៀវភៅ​ពុម្ព​ក៏​មិន​មាន​គ្រប់​ដៃ តើ​ទៅ​បង្រៀន​តាម​បែប​សិស្ស​មណ្ឌល​យ៉ាង​ម៉េច?

គ្រូបង្រៀន​ភាគ​ច្រើន​រអ៊ូ​ថា មាន​សិស្ស​មួយ​ចំនួន​រៀន​ថ្នាក់​ទី​៧ ហើយ​អាន​អក្សរ​មិន​ដាច់​ផង។ ពិបាក​ទាំង​វិធីសាស្ត្រ យ៉ាប់​ទាំង​កម្មវិធី​សិក្សា សៀវភៅ​សិក្សា​ចេះ​តែ​វិវឌ្ឍន៍ ឯ​ការ​បំពាក់បំប៉ន​គ្រូបង្រៀន ក៏​មិន​សូវ​មាន។ ឲ្យ​តែ​មាន​កម្មវិធី​សិក្សា​ថ្មី ក្រសួង​អប់រំ ចាប់​ផ្តើម​រៀបចំ​សិក្ខា​សាលា​ផ្សព្វផ្សាយ​តម្រង់​ទិស​គ្រូ។ កន្លែង​ខ្លះ គម្រោង​សិក្ខា​សាលា​ធ្វើ​បី​ថ្ងៃ តែ​មន្ត្រី​ក្រសួង​តម្រឹម​ធ្វើ​តែ ១​ថ្ងៃ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ ដើម្បី​ចំណេញ​ថ្លៃ​ស្នាក់នៅ​ហូប​ចុក​ពេល​ធ្វើ​សិក្ខា​សាលា​នោះ។ ជួន​កាល គ្រូបង្រៀន​មិន​ទាំង​បាន​ទៅ​រៀន​បំប៉ន​ផង ក៏​ត្រូវ​ត្រដាបត្រដួស​បង្រៀន​សិស្ស​ទាំង​ខ្លួន​ឯង​មិន​សូវ​យល់​ក៏​មាន។
ទោះ​ជា​យ៉ាង​ណា​ក៏ដោយ គុណភាព​នៃ​ការ​អប់រំ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា ប្រហែល​ជា​មិន​អន់​ឡើយ បើ​គោល​នយោបាយ​ជាតិ​នានា​ទាក់ទង​នឹង​វិស័យ​អប់រំ ត្រូវ​បាន​អនុវត្ត។ សិស្ស​ខ្មែរ​មិន​តិច​នាក់​ទេ ធ្លាប់​ទទួល​បាន​មេដាយ​មាស ប្រាក់ សំរឹទ្ធិ ក្នុង​ការ​ប្រឡង​ប្រជែង​គណិតវិទ្យា និង​រូបវិទ្យា​ថ្នាក់​អន្តរជាតិ​រួច​ហើយ។ សិស្ស​ពូកែ​មួយ​ចំនួន​ធំ ថែម​ទាំង​បាន​ទទួល​អាហារូបករណ៍​ទៅ​រៀន​ក្រៅ​ស្រុក​ទៀត​ផង។

សំណួរ​សួរ​ថា តើ​រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​មាន​យន្តការ​ប្រមូល​យុវជន​មាន​សមត្ថភាព​ទាំង​នោះ មក​ជួយ​អភិវឌ្ឍ​ប្រទេស​ឬ​នៅ?

ចម្លើយ​អាច​មាន​រួច​ហើយ តែ​ប្រមូល​តែ​ក្រុម​កូន​ចៅ​មន្ត្រី​ធំៗ​ឲ្យ​មក​កាន់​ការ​ក្នុង​ជួរ​ រដ្ឋាភិបាល​តែ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ។ បើ​កូន​អ្នក​អត់​សែ​វិញ ធ្វើ​ការ​នៅ​ស្រុក​គេ​ទៅ​អាវ៉ា។ បើ​ចង់​ចូល​ជួយ​ជាតិ ត្រូវ​ធ្វើ​ការ​នៅ​សង្គម​ស៊ីវិល ឬ​អង្គការ​នានា តែ​ភ្លាត់​ហ្នឹង គេ​ហៅ​ថា​ពួក​អគតិ​ទៀត។ រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា ទំនង​ជា​ត្រូវ​ប្ដូរ​ពី​ជំហាន​គីង្គក់​របស់ លោក ហ៊ុន សែន ទៅ​ជា​ជំហាន​យក្ស​វិញ​ហើយ ទើប​អាច​តាម​ទាន់​ប្រទេស​ជិត​ខាង​បាន៕

Cambodia: More Than 70 Percent of Cambodia’s High School Students Fail Key Exam

Source: Radio Free Asia 

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Students leave an examination center in Cambodia's Svay Rieng province, Aug. 4, 2014.

More than 70 percent of nearly 90,000 of Cambodia's high school students who sat for this year’s national examination have failed, the Ministry of Education announced Friday—the result of a government crackdown on bribery and cheating that had tainted previous exams.

It was a stunning reversal of the 80 percent pass rate last year and the previous year, forcing Prime Minister Hun Sen to give a “second chance” to unsuccessful candidates who have to sit for another examination around mid-October.

The ministry said in a statement that only 25.72 percent or 23,126 of 89,937 students passed this year’s Grade 12 examination held early this month under the watchful eyes of thousands of monitors recruited by the Anti-Corruption Unit.

Ministry spokesman Ros Salin said the result of the examination—a prerequisite for students wishing to pursue university level studies—underscored the government’s move to check cheating as part of deep reforms implemented at the ministry.

“This year’s examination was the first test of deep reforms that have been carried out at the ministry,” he told RFA’s Khmer Service.

Cambodia's Anti-Corruption Unit chief Om Yentieng this week praised high school teachers for overseeing the "cleanest-ever" national exam but warned that jail time awaits anyone who is found to be corrupt at the second round of exams, the Cambodia Daily reported.

He said that less than 500 of the more than 10,000 teachers who oversaw the exam were noted by ACU officials as not having done their job properly.

“There will be no exceptions at the second exam. At that time, you will at least be held in pretrial detention for one month—that would be long enough to remove your name from the payroll,” he was quoted as saying by the newspaper.

“You are the teachers and if you mistreat or cheat your own students it would not be different from a father raping his daughter.”

'Wake-up call'

Phann Nil, the principal of Chea Sim Samaki high school in the capital Phnom Penh, said the examination result was a “wake-up call” for students.

“This result will encourage students to study hard and parents must also pay attention to their children,” he said.

Cambodian Independent Teachers’ Association deputy president Ouk Chhayavy said the association endorsed the examination result but was not supportive of the decision to give students who failed a second chance, citing the financial strain on the government.

“I congratulate the students because the result they obtained was based on their own knowledge,” she said.

Sorn Chovorthey, a student who excelled in the examination, said it was the result of hard work.

“My advice to those students who failed: don’t be discouraged because you have a second chance. You have another month to study. Please study hard, day and night, and be confident,” he said.

Minister of Education Hang Chuon Naron, who has been credited for the reforms at his ministry, said strict measures had to be taken to eliminate irregularities in the examination.

He said the ministry would provide additional classes for key subjects to students who failed in preparation for the re-test, which he pointed out would be as vigorous as the earlier examination.

“Even though we have only one and a half months left, you must study hard,” he told the students.

Reported by RFA’s Khmer Service. Translated by Samean Yun. Written in English by Parameswaran Ponnudurai.

Myanmar’s University Students Protest Proposed Education Law

Source: Radio Free Asia

Hundreds of university students protested on Tuesday against a proposed law that civic groups say allows centralized control of universities and curtails efforts to bring about autonomy of the country’s institutions of higher learning, according to student leaders.

The protests at Dagon University in the northeast of Myanmar’s commercial capital Yangon and Dawei University in Thaninthary region in the country’s south were the latest by universities against the National Education Bill passed by parliament in July.

At the protest in Dagon University, student leaders gave speeches about the bill and demanded a meeting with the government, parliament and the National Network for Education Reform (NNER), a group of civil societies pushing for reforms in educational institutions.

Under the bill, the government would establish a National Education Commission (NEC) that would “control the entire country’s education sector, make policies for it and determine its budget,” Zayar Lwin, chairman of the student union at the Yangon Institute of Economics, told RFA’s Myanmar Service.

“If each university had autonomy, we wouldn’t need the National Education Commission and the Higher Education Coordination Committee, which would be established by the commission,” he said.

The Yangon Institute of Economics is another key university in Myanmar’s commercial capital.

“We’re protesting today to point out that we won’t have any autonomy at universities if we have these two organizations,” he said.

President Thein Sein last month sent back the bill to parliament, saying 25 points in the proposed legislation needed further discussion, according to The Irrawaddy online journal.

Myanmar’s constitution permits the president to send back bills to the legislature within 14 days of their passage, but if lawmakers approve them once again, they automatically become law in seven days.

The student protestors in general want decentralized higher education that gives more authority to schools themselves to run their own affairs and relaxes rules on curriculum.

Under the proposed changes, the Department of Higher Education which supervises universities in Myanmar would be abolished, according to Yin Yin Nwe, head of President Thein Sein’s Education Reform Advisory Group.

“The curriculum will be controlled [by the Ministry of Education] at the beginning,” she told RFA in July, although other reports pointed out that the universities would operate independently under their own boards and have a uniform curriculum during a five-year transition period.

Government control

Myanmar’s more than 150 colleges and universities are mostly located in the regions of Yangon and Mandalay and currently are organized according to fields of study which fall under the direction of relevant ministries.

The NNER, comprised of educational, political and religious organizations, rejected the New Education Bill last month, because it allows the government to retain its control over universities even though it is supposed to overhaul Myanmar’s education system, The Irrawaddy online journal reported.

The organization, which has held nationwide talks over the past two years on education reform, had criticized the bill for excluding many of its key recommendations.

“Universities and colleges must be autonomous and, by necessity, they may cooperate on democratic principles. For academic quality to be assured, assessments must be done by a team of independent specialists,” the NNER said.

It called the move to set up the NEC and the Higher Education Coordination Committee unnecessary, saying they would maintain the government’s centralized control of education.

Among the NNER’s complaints about the bill are that it ignores calls for local languages to be used in instruction in ethnic states, is discriminatory in articles dealing with special-needs children, and provides a definition of higher education that harkens back to the country’s authoritarian regime, The Irrawaddy said.

The NNER recommended that the Ministry of Education be a “facilitator” and leave school management to respective school boards, which include principals, teachers, parents and respectable citizens.

Student unions

Students at universities in Sagaing, Mandalay and Monywa had protested against the bill last week.

Students at Yatanarpon University in Mandalay had said that the bill restricted their rights, reinforced a centralized system, ignored ethnic literacy and relied on an outdated point-based grading system, according to the Myanmar Eleven media group.

The students also criticized the bill for lacking transparency as it moved through parliament, because information about it in state-run newspapers did not match with what was passed by the lower house, the group said in a report in July.

Nyan Htein Lin, the head of Yatanarpon University’s student union organizing committee, also criticized the bill’s provisions for strengthening the government’s control of higher education, ignoring ethnic literacy and continuing the current grading system.

He also pointed out that only government officials, ministers and professors participated in drafting the bill, while other experts and student representatives were left out.

The student union called for student representatives, teachers and non-government experts to be included in the process.

Reported by Khin Khin Ei of RFA's Myanmar Service. Translated by Khet Mar. Written in English by Roseanne Gerin.