Showing posts with label Economy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Economy. Show all posts

Tuesday 27 February 2024

Opinion: Confucius Institute Enhances Chinese Language Education, Cultural Exchange in NW Cambodia


Confucius institutes have been playing a vital role in promoting Chinese language education and cultural exchanges, along with enhancing the quality of education in Cambodian higher education institutions for over a decade. Currently, four major Confucius institutes are operational in Cambodia. The first one was co-founded by Jiujiang University and the Royal Academy of Cambodia (CIRAC) on December 22, 2009, an organization that operates under the supervision of the Council of Ministers.

On December 26, 2019, the second Confucius Institute (CINUBB) was established by the Guilin University of Electronic Technology and the National University of Battambang, which is overseen by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport. The Nanjing Vocational University of Industry Technology and the Federation of Khmer Chinese in Cambodia jointly established the fourth one at the Cambodian University of Technology and Science (CICamTech) in November 2022, which is also supervised by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport.

On June 4, 2020, the fourth Chinese higher education institution was founded in Cambodia. Hainan University collaborated with the Royal University of Agriculture at the Royal University of Agriculture to establish the China-Indochina Research and Education Center for Sustainable Development (CIRUA). CIRUA operates under the supervision of the Cambodian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries.

Besides CIRUA, other Chinese higher education institutions, such as Lanmei University of Cambodia and Cambodia-China University of Technology and Science, have also been established in Cambodia. China is promoting STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) diplomacy in Cambodia by supporting higher education in science, technology, and information and communication technology (ICT). This initiative reflects Chinese cooperation and contributes to the debate over China's international development model and its growing role as a global leader.

In addition, on April 25, 2018, former Prime Minister Hun Sen and former Chinese Ambassador to Cambodia Xiong Bo jointly unveiled Kratie University. The university cost 12 million U.S. dollars, with 10 million coming from the Chinese government and the rest from the Kratie Foundation for Higher Education Organization.

According to the 2023 Southeast Asia Confucius Institutes Joint Conference report, Southeast Asia has 62 Confucius Institutes (classrooms) as of July 2023, with Thailand having the most at 23—the highest number in ASEAN. The size of the Chinese diaspora population and the perception that China's economic influence provides Mandarin speakers with more job opportunities are the most apparent reasons why Mandarin language learning has grown in popularity in ASEAN rather than in the West.

Southeast Asia is home to approximately 30 million of the estimated 40 million ethnic Chinese diaspora. While Confucius Institutes are lauded for their contributions to education and cultural exchange, they have also been criticized in several countries for concerns about academic freedom, propaganda, and influence operations. The perception and impact of these institutes vary significantly from one country to another. On the other hand, Cambodia can benefit from establishing Confucius institutes that can provide Chinese language education to students to increase employment and economic growth in Cambodia.

The Confucius Institute, a non-profit public educational organization affiliated with the People's Republic of China's Ministry of Education, is critical in promoting Chinese language education and cultural exchange in Cambodian higher education institutions. The Centre for Language Education and Cooperation (CLEC) and the Chinese International Education Foundation (CIEF) provide technical and financial support for C.I.s around the world.

The Confucius Institute has seven significant roles. Firstly, its primary focus is on teaching the Chinese language to Cambodian students. It offers classes led by certified and experienced Chinese language instructors, ranging from beginner to advanced levels. This helps Cambodian students learn Chinese and prepares them for careers in business and diplomacy, where Chinese language proficiency is increasingly valued.

Secondly, besides teaching students, these institutes also frequently train Cambodian Chinese language teachers, contributing to developing a long-term model for Chinese language education in the country.

Thirdly, they organize and facilitate various cultural exchange programs, including Chinese cultural festivals, art exhibitions, music and dance performances, and other events that showcase Chinese culture. These events help enhance mutual understanding and cultural exchange between China and Cambodia.

Fourth, they provide resources such as books, journals, and electronic materials to support Chinese language education and offer scholarships or funding opportunities for Cambodian students to study in China, fostering educational exchanges.

Fifth, some Confucius Institutes engage in academic and research collaborations between Cambodian and Chinese higher education institutions. This includes joint research projects, conferences, seminars, and the exchange of academic staff and scholars.

Sixth, facilitating international collaboration: These institutes facilitate broader international collaboration and partnership in higher education by serving as a bridge between Chinese and Cambodian educational institutions.

Finally, promoting understanding of Chinese policies and developments: through various programs and seminars, the Confucius Institutes also provide insights into Chinese policies, economic developments, and societal changes, which is crucial for countries like Cambodia with strong economic and diplomatic ties with China.

In the meantime, I'd like to share an achievement of one of the Confucius Institutes in Cambodia, CINUBB. The institute has been instrumental in training Chinese language human resources in Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh, benefitting more than 6,165 students.

It has also helped to strengthen the friendship between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the People's Republic of China, which has a rich history. CINUBB has 21 full-time international Chinese language teachers, most of whom have bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees and extensive overseas teaching experience.

In collaboration with Battambang's Provincial Department of Education, Youth, and Sports, the Confucius Institute has established 18 Chinese language classes at some high schools, including Pich Chenda High School and Sdao Santepheap High School, as well as higher education institutions, the 5th Military Headquarter Region, and Chinese enterprises, providing Chinese language training at all levels. Currently, more than 200 students are pursuing a Bachelor of Chinese Literature degree at the National Universities of Battambang and Meanchey.

Over the last four years, the Confucius Institute has organized 160 cultural exchange activities and provided opportunities for Chinese language lovers in Cambodia to showcase their talents, including the Spring Festival, Zhuang Festival, Khmer New Year Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, Cultural Experience Festival, and teaching activities, including a Chinese poetry recitation competition, a "Chinese Bridge" competition for university students, and a Chinese singing competition. These activities have served as a link between international Chinese language education in northwestern Cambodia and China, fostering cultural exchanges and promoting friendship between our two nations.

National and international media both report on these activities. In particular, the Confucius Institute at the National University of Battambang has received several outstanding awards from well-known Chinese newspapers. Regarding educational exchanges between China and Cambodia, the Confucius Institute is dedicated to enhancing Cambodia's national education system through exchanging knowledge and technology.  Cambodia's Minister of Education, Youth, and Sport, Hang Chuon Naron, and Chinese Ambassador to Cambodia, Wang Wentian signed a memorandum of understanding on November 9, 2022, to pilot Chinese courses in some public schools, with implementation scheduled in 2023.

Furthermore, the Confucius Institute contributes to the success of the Belt and Road Initiative. On January 15, 2024, the National Institute of Education trained 100 Cambodian teachers who will teach Chinese in Cambodian public schools. As part of the first phase, 20 public secondary schools teach Chinese. More than 100 Cambodian educational institutions have trained more than 100,000 students in the Chinese language, according to the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport statement.

In the future, the Confucius Institute of the National University of Battambang will increase the number of Chinese classrooms and teaching sites open to public and private schools and enterprises, integrate Chinese with other related majors, do substantial work for students' employment, and improve their labour skills. CINUBB will contribute to achieving the Belt and Road Initiatives and mutual understanding of both leaders.

Remarkably, Prime Minister Hun Sen and President Xi Jinping signed an agreement on Cambodia-China relations and cooperation in February 2023, including the launch of the "Diamond Cooperation" and the establishment of the "Industrial and Technological Corridor" and "Fish and Rice Corridor." Prime Minister Hun Manet and Chinese leaders, especially President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Qiang, exchanged views on propelling the Year of People-to-People Exchange in 2024 into a productive year with concrete outcomes by attracting additional Chinese tourists and more direct flights from China to Cambodia, particularly Siem Reap.

The fish and rice corridor initiative aims to enhance agricultural trade between the two countries, focusing on products like fish, rice, tropical fruits, vegetables, and various agricultural inputs, including fertilizers, pesticides, and animal feed in northwestern Cambodia, particularly in the Tonle Sap Lake area, to develop modern ecological agriculture near Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake by surface area.

Former Prime Minister Hun Sen announced on March 14, 2023, that the government had designated four provinces—Pursat, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Pailin—as Cambodia's fourth economic pole. Cambodian Tourism Minister Sok Soken said the Southeast Asian country recorded 5.4 million international tourists, including some 540,000 Chinese tourists, in 2023. According to Cambodia's Ministry of Tourism, China was Cambodia's most significant source of international tourist arrivals in the pre-pandemic era.

The kingdom received 2.36 million Chinese tourists in 2019, accounting for 35.7 percent of the total international tourist arrivals and generating about 1.8 billion U.S. dollars in revenue. In conclusion, I firmly believe that C.I.s will continue to contribute to providing quality Chinese language education for Cambodians and to be a bridge to facilitate cultural and people-to-people exchanges for mutual benefits and Cambodia's economic growth, not only in Northwestern Cambodia but also in the whole country.

Sam Rany is a Vice-Rector of the National University of Battambang (NUBB) and Co-Director of the Confucius Institute of the National University of Battambang (CINUBB).

Monday 6 November 2023


(ឆុងឆីង)៖ គណៈ​ប្រតិភូនៃសាកលវិទ្យាល័យជាតិបាត់ដំបង និងសាកលវិទ្យាល័យភូមិន្ទភ្នំពេញបានទៅទស្សនកិច្ចសិក្សានៅទីស្នាក់កណ្តាលរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុនហុងជូហ៊្រូដ (Hongjiu Fruit) នៅទីក្រុងឆុង   ឈីងនៃសាធារណៈរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិនកាលពីថ្ងៃទី៣០ខែកញ្ញាឆ្នាំ២០២៣។ ទស្សនកិច្ចសិក្សានេះមានគោល បំណង ស្វែងយល់ពីភាពជាអ្នកដឹកនាំ វប្បធម៌អង្គភាព ការគ្រប់គ្រងធនធានមនុស្ស គម្រូអាជីវកម្ម និងការប្រើប្រាស់បច្ចេកវិទ្យាឌីជីថលក្នុងការគ្រប់គ្រងខ្សែសង្វាក់ផ្គត់ផ្គង់ ការងារលទ្ធកម្ម ការដឹកជញ្ជូន និងការចែកចាយផលិតផលរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន។ លោកដឹង ហុងជូ (Deng Hungjui) អគ្គនាយកក្រុមហ៊ុន ថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំនិងបុគ្គលិកក្រុមហ៊ុនបានទទួលស្វាគមន៍យ៉ាងកក់ក្តៅដល់គណៈប្រតិភូនៃសាកលវិទ្យាល័យទាំងយើងទាំងពីរ។​

ក្រុមហ៊ុននេះបាននឹងកំពុងសិក្សាទីផ្សារ និងលទ្ធភាពក្នុងធ្វើវិនិយោគទន់លើវិស័យកសិកម្មនៅក្នុងខេត្តបាត់ដំបងដើម្បីដាំដុះ និងនាំចេញផ្លែឈើសំខាន់ៗចំនួន៦ មុខរួមមាន៖ ធូរ៉េន ម្ឃុត មៀន ស្រកានាគ ឆែរី និងទំពាំងបាយជូ។ ក្រុមហ៊ុនហុងជូហ៊្រូដបានចុះអនុស្សរណៈនៃការយោគយល់គ្នាស្តីពីកិច្ចសហប្រតិ​   បត្តិការយុទ្ធសាស្រ្តសាកលជាមួយមូលនិធិអភិវឌ្ឍន៍សហគ្រិនភាពនៃក្រសួងសេដ្ឋកិច្ច និងហរិញ្ញវត្ថុនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា និងក្រុមហ៊ុន  Advance Digital World Trade ដើម្បីលើកម្ពស់ឌីជីថលូបនីយកម្មនៃការគ្រប់គ្រងសង្វាក់ផ្តត់ផ្គង់ផលិតផលកសិកម្មនៅកម្ពុជា នៅក្នុងកម្មវិធីពិពរណ៍ពាណិជ្ជកម្មចិន- អាស៊ានលើកទី២០ កាលពីថ្ងៃទី១៨ ខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ២០២៣ កន្លងទៅនេះ។ សាកលវិទ្យាល័យជាតិបាត់ដំបង និងវិទ្យាស្ថានខុងជឺនៃសាកលវិទ្យាល័យជាតិបាត់ដំបងនឹងធ្វើកិច្ចសហប្រតិការលើការអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ធន ធានមនុស្ស ការស្រាវជ្រាវកសិកម្ម និងកសិកមុ្មនាពេលអានាគត។

សូមរំលឹកដែរថា ក្រុមហ៊ុនហុងជូហ៊្រូដជាក្រុមហ៊ុនកសិកម្មចិនឈានមុខគេមួយដែលបានបង្កើតឡើងក្នុងឆ្នាំ២០២២ ដោយផ្តោតលើការធ្វើប្រតិបត្តិការខ្សែសង្វាក់ផ្គត់ផ្គង់ផ្លែឈើដែលមានគុណភាពខ្ពស់នៅបរទេស និងនៅប្រទេសចិន។ ក្រុមហ៊ុនបានប្រើប្រាស់បច្ចេកវិទ្យាឌីជីថលប្រកបដោយប្រសិទ្ធភាពក្នុងការគ្រប់គ្រងខ្សែសង្វាក់ផ្គត់ផ្គង់ និងចែកចាយផលិតផលផ្លែឈើដោយផ្ទាល់ពីកសិដ្ឋានជុំវិញពិភព លោកទៅកាន់អ្នកលក់រាយនៅទូទាំងប្រទេសចិន។

Sunday 26 October 2014

MALAYSIA: Loan defaulters barred from leaving

Tuesday 8 October 2013

Sugar Industry Highlights Conflicts Over Trade Pacts and Land

By The New York Time
OMLIANG COMMUNE, Cambodia — Yim Lon nurses bitter memories of how three years ago the local authorities forced her and her family to dismantle their small home and move it to make way for a sugar plantation. 

The Phnom Penh Sugar Company paid her a few hundred dollars, less than a tenth of what Ms. Yim, 53, says she believes the family’s small plot of farmland was worth. She dreams of being allowed to move their two-room house, made of wood planks and steel siding, back to the site near a stream where they used to grow rice. She is convinced that the other culprits are the Europeans, who buy sugar from Phnom Penh Sugar. “If Europe continues buying sugar from the company, then we will continue suffering,” she said. 

Phnom Penh Sugar says that it has behaved fairly and obeyed local laws. Newly created sugar plantations across Cambodia have created thousands of cash-paying jobs for destitute migrant workers and subsistence farmers, and hundreds of jobs for skilled factory workers. 

But the corporate practice in Cambodia of obtaining tens of thousands of acres from the government as economic development concessions for large sugar plantations, while paying modest compensation to farmers pushed off the land, places a harsh light on international trade pacts that are meant to help the world’s poorest countries. 

To many activists who have heard the tales of people like Ms. Yim, the trade pacts that foster exports can have the unintended effect of encouraging land grabs by wealthy, politically connected families.
Nearly all of Cambodia’s sugar exports go to the European Union under the Everything But Arms program, which eliminates import duties for the sugar. The European Union also sets high minimum prices for imported sugar, well above world levels. Western activists have tried in recent months to organize consumer boycotts against companies that have bought Cambodian sugar, notably Tate & Lyle Sugars, which is owned by American Sugar Refining of West Palm Beach, Fla. 

The European Union has held high-level talks with Cambodian officials about the sugar issue. But it has refrained so far from opening a formal investigation into whether Cambodian sugar should lose duty-free access to the European Union. 

In a written response to questions, Ambassador Jean-François Cautain, the head of the European Union’s delegation to Cambodia, pointed to statistical measures. Rising exports helped Cambodia triple average annual income per person in the last decade, to $980, while reducing poverty to a fifth of the country’s population, he wrote. “We also need to consider the benefits the overall Cambodian economy gets from the ‘Everything But Arms’ scheme and the harm the country would suffer if we remove it,” he wrote. 

Western and Cambodian activists have called for the exclusion of Cambodian sugar from duty-free treatment in Europe, saying that it triggers corporate land grabs. 

“The land is deeply connected to the spiritual life of the people,” said Chum Narin, the land and natural resources program head at the Community Legal Education Center, a nonprofit group in Phnom Penh. 

American Sugar Refining said that its Tate & Lyle unit had bought only two “small shipments” over the years from Cambodia. The first was in May 2011 and the second in June 2012, the company said. It also said that it “has not received Cambodian sugar for over a year and has no plans for further purchases.” 

Both of American Sugar’s purchases were from the KSL Group, another company producing sugar in Cambodia. Phnom Penh Sugar said that it sold sugar to businesses in Spain and Italy, but it declined to identify the buyers

Sugar represented only $25.2 million of the $1.34 billion in Cambodian products that the European Union bought in the first six months of this year. Most of the European imports from Cambodia are garments. 

But the developing sugar industry has created jobs chopping sugar cane for previously destitute migrant workers from hill villages even poorer than Omliang Commune. Sugar refineries have also brought multimillion-dollar investments, roads and other amenities to remote areas where investors have long feared to venture in an oftentimes chaotic country like Cambodia.

Sunday 25 August 2013

VIETNAM: As degree mills proliferate, new measures published

Sunday 18 August 2013

GLOBAL: Academics in South Korea top business funding index

Saturday 10 August 2013

Cambodia: Grand Plans for $80-Billion Capital City Fit for a Techo

By and - August 9, 2013

If Phoeung Sophoan has his way, Phnom Penh’s days as Cambodia’s capital city are numbered.
A secretary of state at the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction, Mr. Sophoan has big plans for a new 35,000-hectare capital city north of Phnom Penh called “Samdech Techo Hun Sen Dragon City.”

Mr. Sophoan claims the project has the nod from Prime Minister Hun Sen, and all he needs now is $80 billion to build it. 

“If we study the history of any country, after you have great progress and then stability, you must have a new city,” Mr. Sophoan explained at his office on Tuesday.

He said that Dragon City would provide Mr. Hun Sen the chance to place his mark on the country like only the nation’s Angkorian kings have done.

“In the 12th century, we had Suryavaraman II who built Ang­kor Wat,” Mr. Sophoan said.
“When we go to Angkor Thom, we know this is the city of Jayavarman VII, and when we go to the Bakheng Temple, we know this is the city of Yasovarman I.”

“Now we are in the Samdech Hun Sen period—when we see this city, we will know this is the project of Samdech Hun Sen, the Dragon City,” the secretary of state said.

The mammoth city—containing hundreds of buildings and high rises designed in a sort of eclectic neo-Angkorian meets sci-fi movie style—would be strictly zoned into residential, commercial, cultural, educational and tourist segments, which would be laid out to resemble the face of a dragon.
“When you fly into Cambodia, you will see the lights like the head of a Naga, and you will know you are in Cambodia,” Mr. Sophoan explained.

With the borders of the new capital beginning just beyond Phnom Penh’s northern fringes—where the paths of the Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers divert—Mr. Sophoan’s city would end northwest of Udong, the last capital before King Norodom moved his court to Phnom Penh almost 150 years ago.
At the center of Dragon City, as its defining feature, will stand a 600-meter tall building, which would be the world’s second tallest if it is ever built.

At the apex of that heavens-piercing tower, Mr. Sophoan explained, will be Mr. Hun Sen’s headquarters, which the secretary of state has tentatively titled “Samdech Akeak Moha Senabakte Techor Hun Sen’s Imperial Residential.”

“[The building] will be 600 meters tall, and this one will have the headquarters for Hun Sen to control all of our country and see all of our country,” Mr. Sophoan said, illustrating the range of the prime minister’s lofty view with a map with nine blue arrows pointing outward from Dragon City to the farther reaches of the country’s borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.

Mr. Sophoan, who was educated in architecture in France and returned to Cambodia in 1989, said that he began planning Dragon City in 2010 and pushed ahead after receiving a letter that year from Mr. Hun Sen expressing his approval of the mega-project tribute city.

“At first I did not work too hard because I worried that Samdech Hun Sen did not like it,” Mr. Sophoan said. “Now Hun Sen says that he is very interested in it and told me to find investors to fund the project.”

Mr. Sophoan claimed that plans for the city are progressing, and that a prominent construction firm based in Shanghai was in negotiations to help him secure the tens of billions of dollars he needs from Chi­na’s central bank to create his vision.

Information about the Shanghai-based company could not be found online Thursday, and Lim Leang Se, deputy chief of the prime minister’s Cabinet, said Wednesday that he had never heard of Mr. Sophoan’s Hun Sen Dragon City.

Mr. Sophoan’s project is not secret though.

He appeared on an English-language news segment called “This is Cambodia” on CTN—owned by Royal Group chairman Kith Meng —in March last year, in which the presenter described Dragon City as “part of the government’s response to an ever-increasing population and the country’s fast-paced economic growth.”

In the segment, Mr. Sophoan said that if China were to support the project, it would be “an architectural and urban planning revolution” and improve Cambodia’s image internationally.
Some are skeptical.

Mr. Sophoan’s plans for the new satellite city would be incredibly hard to realize for political as well as logistical reasons, said Simon Springer, an associate professor of geography at Canada’s University of Victoria who has studied Cambodia’s development over the past decade.

“It’s likening Hun Sen to one of the Angkorian God-kings…. It’s intensively problematic,” Mr. Springer said.

“The whole plan is beyond ambitious. Even where the funding could come from remains to be seen. Presumably, it would come from China—and China has numerous developments of entire cities like this that are al­most entirely vacant,” he said.

Dragon City also would not be the first overly ambitious satellite city to fail.

About a half-dozen similar de­velopments—all much smaller in scope—have been proposed over the past decade, with none having yet been completed and many scaling back after discovering a lack of demand.

One of the most high-profile sat­ellites, the $1 billion CamKo City, broke ground in 2005 but ran into problems in 2011 amid accusations that its main South Korean investor was illicitly using deposited funds for business deals overseas.

Another satellite city—CPP Sena­tor Ly Yong Phat’s 800-hectare Garden City—broke ground in April and is set to include a convention center, a national sports stadium, two ports, a golf course and an industrial park.

Surprisingly, the land Mr. Sophoan has demarcated for Hun Sen Dragon City actually encompasses Mr. Yong Phat’s land.

Stephen Higgins, who said in 2009 when he was CEO of ANZ Royal Bank that ANZ would not loan money to people looking to purchase property in satellite cities around Phnom Penh, said Thursday that Mr. Sophoan’s project was yet another pie-in-the-sky idea for a new city.

“Hun Sen is a very intelligent guy and I can’t imagine he’d be associated with something like this,” Mr. Higgins said. “It is not feasible. It is beyond a fantasy, and I don’t think it will get past the stage of just being this fantasy in someone’s mind.”

“There’s no property development in the world that is worth $80 billion,” he added.
“To get $80 billion when the country’s GDP [gross domestic product] is $12-13 billion…the idea is laughable.”

In spite of the nay saying and doubters, Mr. Sophoan is confident Hun Sen Dragon City will be a reality one day.

“It will take just 18 years to build if I have the $80 billion.”

© 2013, The Cambodia Daily. All rights reserved. No part of this article may be reproduced in print, electronically, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without written permission.

Sunday 14 July 2013

Cambodia: Apsara Authority Refutes $200M Revenue Claim

By - July 13, 2013

The Apsara Authority, which manages the Angkor Archaeo­logical Park, issued a statement on Friday refuting a claim made by Cambodia National Rescue Party leader Kem Sokha about the amount of revenue that it collects from ticket sales. 

The letter, signed by Apsara Authority director-general Bun Narith, said that Mr. Sokha was quoted on July 9 while campaigning in Siem Reap as saying that the revenue from ticket sales for Angkor is almost $200 million per year.

“The Cambodia Na­tional Rescue Party has purposefully pretended to know the correct tourism figures in order to mislead about the number of tourists visiting Angkor,” it says.

The statement went on to explain that not all the 3,584,307 tourists to the country last year visited the temples, meaning the revenues collected at Angkor Park are actually much lower.

The Apsara Authority did not say what its revenues are, but pointed out that children younger than 12 and government delegations are not re­quired to purchase a ticket to enter the park.

The true number of tickets sold last year was 1,808,623, the authority said, and of those, 59.2 percent were single day passes, which cost $20.

Sunday 10 March 2013

Cambodia ‘near bottom’ in budget transparency

The 2024 Workshops for Foreign Confucius Institute Directors on June 13-21, 2024 at Sichuan Province, China

My sincere thanks and gratitude go to my respectful Rector, H.E. Sok Khorn , and the Chinese Confucius Institute Director, Prof. Yi Yongzhon...