Saturday, 13 November 2021

ប្រវត្តិសាកលវិទ្យាល័យជាតិបាត់ដំបង ពីឆ្នាំ១៩៦៨ ដល់បច្ចុប្បន្ន

ព្រះករុណាព្រះបាទសម្តេចព្រះនរោត្តម សីហនុ «ព្រះបរមរតនកោដ្ឋ» បានស្ថាបនាសាកលវិទ្យាល័យភូមិន្ទបាត់ដំបងតាមរយៈ ព្រះរាជក្រឹត្យលេខ ៣៤/៦៨.ប.រ ចុះថ្ងៃទី៣០ ខែមេសា ឆ្នាំ១៩៦៨ និងបានសម្ពោធជាផ្លូវការក្រោមព្រះរាជធិបតីភាពដ៍ខ្ពង់ខ្ពស់បំផុត ព្រះបាទសម្តេចនរោត្តម សីហនុ នៅថ្ងៃទី ៣១ ខែតុលា ឆ្នាំ១៩៦៨។ ​ ជាអកុសល សាកលវិទ្យាល័យនេះបានបិទទ្វារវិញ ដោយសារសង្រ្គាមស៊ីវិល នៅឆ្នាំ១៩៧០។​ ក្រោយបញ្ចប់សង្រ្គាមស៊ីវិល សម្តេចក្រឡាហោ ស ខេងឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្រ្តី ​និងរដ្ឋម​ន្រ្តីក្រសួងមហាផ្ទៃបានផ្តួចផ្តើមគំនិតបង្កើតសាកលវិទ្យាល័យនេះឡើងវិញដែលមានឈ្មោះថា«សាកលវិទ្យាល័យបាត់ដំបង»តាមរយៈអនុក្រឹត្យលេខ ២៧ អ.ន.ក្រ.ប.ក ចុះថ្ងៃទី ២១ ខែមីនា ឆ្នាំ២០០៧​ សាកលវិទ្យាល័យបាត់ដំបងបានសម្ពោធជាផ្លូវការក្រោមអធិបតីភាពដ៍ខ្ពង់ខ្ពស់បំផុត សម្តេចអគ្គមហាសេនាបតីតេជោ ហ៊ុន សែន នៅថ្ងៃទី ០៩ ខែឆ្នូ ឆ្នាំ២០១០។ សាកលវិទ្យាល័យបាត់ដំបងត្រូវបានប្តូរឈ្មោះទៅជា «សាកលវិទ្យាល័យជាតិបាត់ដំបង» តាមរយៈ អនុក្រឹត្យលេខ ២០៦ អនក្រ.បក ចុះថ្ងៃទី ១៥ ខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ២០២០។​





Thursday, 28 October 2021

Using Educational Technology in the English Language Classroom


 

Confucius Institute Established in University of Battambang

Battambang (FN), Dec. 27 – University of Battambang officially celebrated the official inauguration of Confucius Institute on Thursday, 26 December 2019. The institute is located at the University of Battambang campus.

The inauguration ceremony was presided over by Sar Sokha, secretary of state of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, represented by Academician Hang Chuon Naron, minister of Education, Youth and Sport. Confucius Institute of University of Battambang is jointly established by University of Battambang (UBB) and Guilin University of Electronic Technology (GUET). There are two co-directors: Cambodian director is Dr. Sam Rany, and Chinese director is professor Dr. Wang Jianian.

Confucius Institute at the University of Battambang has four main objectives: first, to teach Chinese to the general public in northwestern part of Cambodia, secondly to train Chinese teachers, to prepare Chinese language exams, and to certify Chinese language teachers. Third, to consult on Chinese social, economic, cultural, and education, and fourth to provide Jointed-PhD program in China and to award a Young Leadership Fellowship.

Sar Sokha mentioned the diplomatic relations between Cambodia and China, which began on 19 July 1958, with the late King Father Norodom Sihanouk founding with Chinese leaders.

This path of communication has continued to be strengthened and expanded under the wise leadership of Prime Minister Hun Sen and has become a strategic and comprehensive link to being good friends, neighbors, brothers and partners.

Sar Sokha also mentioned the reform of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport for physical education and sports in preparation for the SEA Games in 2023, which Cambodia will host. Significantly, the Cambodian sports industry has been steadily improving; for example, athletes have been steadily gaining medals in recent SEA Games.

Uk Sarun, under-secretary of state, a representative of Prak Sokhonn, minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation has highlighted that Cambodia and China have a longstanding relationship since 13th century when Chinese envoy, Mr. Zhou Daguan, who visited Angkor for studying Khmer civilization in 1296–1297. When he returned to China, he wrote his dairy notebook that were crucial documents for the Cambodian history. He said that, the most remarkable relationship is, Prince Norodom Sihanouk and former prime minister Zhou Enlai had a first meeting in the Asian-African Conference in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. This first meeting reached to exchange official visits of highest leaders of our two countries in 1956, and established Cambodia and China diplomatic relations on 19 July 1958. From that time, our two leaders has strived to maintain strong relationship and development and reach to set up “a comprehensive strategic partnership of cooperation Cambodia –China” on 13 December 2010.

Zuo Wen-xing, Charge d’Affairs of China’s Embassy to Cambodia stated that Confucius is a great thinker and educator in ancient China. Confucius' Confucianism has had a profound impact on the development of Chinese civilization for more than 2000 years, and it is an important part of Chinese traditional culture.

“The Confucius Institute, named after Confucius, not only has distinct Chinese characteristics, but also carries the good desire of China to strengthen cultural exchanges with the world and inherit the friendship between China and the people of all countries in the world.”

Since the establishment of the first Confucius Institute in the world more than ten years ago, the construction of Confucius Institute has developed rapidly. So far, 162 countries and regions have set up 550 Confucius Institutes and 1172 Confucius classrooms in primary and secondary schools. There are 69 countries In the United States, there are more than 2.

8 million Chinese students; in the United Kingdom, there are 200,000 Chinese students in more than 5200 primary and secondary schools, according to Zuo Wen-xing.

She also stated that the establishment of Confucius Institute at University of Battambang will certainly play a positive role in enhancing mutual learning between Chinese and Cambodian civilizations, deepening the friendship between the two peoples, close cooperation in the fields of culture and education between the two countries, and making important contributions to inheriting the brotherly friendship between the peoples of China and Cambodia.

Dr. Ma Jianfei, deputy chief executive of Confucius Institute Headquarters has sent a congratulatory message to the Confucius Institute at the University of Battambang. He noted that both China and Cambodia have a long history and splendid civilizations, and the friendship between the two countries have been enhanced with the passage of time.

“Cambodia is one of the first countries to respond to the “Belt and Road” Initiative. China and Cambodia are strengthening their mutual political trust and expanding pragmatic cooperation in various fields,” he said.

“Cambodia has become China’s important trading partner and investment target country in Southeast Asia. Cambodia has become a major trading partner of China and is one of the target countries for business investment in all sectors in Southeast Asia,” he added.

Dr. Ma Jianfei hoped that the two universities will give full play to their respective advantages, cooperate sincerely and work together to consolidate the foundation of Chinese language teaching, carry out varied cultural activities, and strive to make the Confucius Institute a bridge for education, cultural exchanges and cooperation between the two countries, promoting mutual understanding and cementing the friendship between the people of China and Cambodia.

It should be reminded that Confucius Institute of the University of Battambang is the second institute in the Kingdom of Cambodia, which was approved by the Headquarter Confucius Institute at the end of 2018 after the Confucius Institute at the Royal Academy of Cambodia established in 2009. Confucius Institute of the University of Battambang will open to all students from Battambang with official enrollment from 2020. These majors such as Chinese, along with Information Technology, E-commerce, Tourism, Law, Engineering, and Agriculture.
=FRESH NEWS

Source: http://en.freshnewsasia.com/index.php/en/localnews/16316-2019-12-28-01-56-28.html



Monday, 5 March 2018

Orientation Workshop on Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS) Presented by the EdUHK at UBB, Cambodia


On the evening of March 04, 2018, the University of Battambang (UBB) organized an Orientation Workshop in Hong Kong Ph.D. Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS) to study at the Education University of Hong Kong (EdUHK), China. This fellowship is funded by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong since 2009. Prof. Lo Sing Kai, who is Associate Vice President and Dean of the Graduate School of EUHK, together with two other delegates, Ms. Poon Sin Yi Teresa, who is Assistant Registrar and Head of Administration and Ms. Wang Yifei who, is Special Project Manager of Graduate School have presented the detailed information about the fellowship and how to prepare an impressive application to succeed in this prestigious fellowship.

Consistent with the One Belt One Road Policy announced by the Chinese Government, the Education University of Hong Kong (EdUHK) is keen to get Ph.D. students from Cambodia, particularly in the UBB. On behalf of H.E. Sieng Emtotim, Rector of UBB, lecturers and students, Dr. Sam Rany, Vice-Rector of UBB has expressed his profound thanks to the delegates who contributed their valued time and resources to motivate UBB’s staff and students to apply for this fellowship and he strongly hoped that UBB’s lecturers and students will get this Ph.D. Fellowship under their facilitation and cooperation. 





Thursday, 4 January 2018

Rectors' Meeting in Brussels





Photo: March 6th - 10th, EURASHE (European Association of Institutions in Higher Education) and project coordinator co-organised meeting of twelve leading representatives from TACTIC partner universities from Cambodia, Vietnam and Mongolia. The Rectors’ Meeting took place in Brussels, Belgium in the EURASHE headquarters.

“UBB Delegates attended the TACTIC Rectors’ Meeting in Brussels” Responding to the official invitation from the European Association of Institution in Higher Education (EURASHE) under TACTIC Erasmus+ project, two UBB delegates, H.E. Sieng Emtotim, Rector of UBB and Dr. Sam Rany, Director of Institute of Foreign Languages have attended the Rectors’ Meeting at Brussels, Belgium on March 6-10, 2017. This meeting aims at providing educational leadership training for top leaders from six Asian Universities in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Mongolia, and strengthens the international cooperation among these countries. UBB delegate acquired new knowledge related the roles of stakeholder in development of European Higher Education Institutions including European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA), European Students Union (ESU), European University Association (EUA), and EURASHE. Furthermore, they learned how to apply for some academic and research projects funded by European Commission and agencies. The last day, our delegate has visited the Odisee University in Brussels.

The 3 days intensive program started by the TACTIC presentation by the coordinator of the project Violeta Osouchova from Masaryk University, Brno. Thereafter the presentations of each of the partner institutions followed with emphasis on the expectations from TACTIC project. After the lunch break, EURASHE Project Manager Marko Grdosic and Policy and Communications Officer Alexandre Wipf led the evaluating discussion about strengths and weaknesses of the partner universities, followed by two European Commission representatives Manel Laporta Grau and Antonella Giorgio who covered equally important aspect of the cooperation - the role and significance of European Union in supporting the capacity building in higher education outside European Union.
Second part of the program included presentations on importance of European associations for representing the interests of higher education institutions and role of stakeholders in development of higher education in Europe. Speeches were given by Michal Karpisek, EURASHE Secretary General, Paula Ranne (ENQA, European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) and Anna Widegren (ESU, European Students Union).
On the last day of the program the participants visited ODISEE University College in Brussels. The day followed by presentation on management of higher education institutions in Belgium by Johan Cloet, former EURASHE Secretary General, former General Director of Lessius University College/Vice-General Director of Thomas More University College in Antwerp, Belgium. After that, with reflections of the participants the Rectors’ Meeting was officially closed. We are looking forward to the meeting of all partners in Hanoi, Vietnam, in December 2017.

Wednesday, 3 January 2018

A Colonial University for South-East Asia? The Indochinese University in Hanoi (1906-1945)

A Colonial University for South-East Asia? The Indochinese University in Hanoi (1906-1945)
By Sara Legrandjacques

(Sourse: Kyotoreview.org): The article is available at: https://kyotoreview.org/yav/indochinese-colonial-university-for-south-east-asia/

In 2006, Hanoi University celebrated its 100th birthday. In his celebratory speech, the University Rector, Prof. Dao Trong Thi, emphasized the importance of the institution’s history. Referring to its colonial birth, he highlighted almost a century of Vietnamese higher education.

Created by the French twice, in 1906 and 1917, the Indochinese University particularly developed in the interwar period after its rocky start. It remained open during WWII before its appropriation by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. It might be suspected that this post-colonial era would have reduced its zone of influence; but from the start, Hanoi University always had striven to be a regional academic hub, especially in South-East Asia.

The 1906 foundation decree by Governor General Paul Beau (1902-1908) introduced this regional goal:
 “A set of higher classes for students from the colony and neighbouring lands is established, in Indochina, under the name “Indochinese University”. This institution aims to expand in the Far-East, especially through the use of French language, European scientific knowledge and methods.” 1

Since 1902, Chinese students had started to enrol in Indochinese higher schools, mainly Hanoi School of Medicine.The university tried to enlarge this Asian recruitment in order to increase the French influence in the area through the propagation of French knowledge. At that time, Japanese higher schools, renovated in the 1880s, were attracting increasing numbers of students. The British were also creating new institutions in Hong Kong and Singapore. A French institution was seen as a way to compete with them and to prevent local students leaving the colony. As early as 1906, Paul Beau sent letters to French diplomatic representatives in China, Siam, the Philippines, Indonesia and a few more distant lands including Japan and India as an effort to attract potential students. But this regional advertising was hardly efficient: South-East Asian students stayed away from Hanoi and the first – and only – year group was comprised solely of Vietnamese, mostly from the Tonkin region of northern Vietnam. This project suddenly floundered: having opened in 1907, the Indochinese University was closed in 1908 because of financial issues.

This first failure did not prevent some Asian students from heading to Indochina: Chinese students from the borderlands, especially Yunnan, continued seeking out the school of medicine in the years that followed. They generally frequented Franco-Annamite or Franco-Indigenous schools in China. Furthermore, some of them were resuming their studies. Lieou Han Kouang from Kai-Houa (Yunnan), quit a military career to head to Hanoi to study medicine. This non-commissioned officer had learnt French in Shanghai and Mongtseu. After having his so-called “worthiness” checked, and thanks to support from Hanoi School of Medicine’s French director, Dr Cognacq, he left China on February 2, 1918 and enrolled in the school. 2 The Hanoi University would reopen in 1917-1918 for the second time. However, French authorities were becoming increasingly suspicious of cross-border nationalism so some new rules were dedicated to this specific audience. Students were admitted for precise purposes, like helping and assisting French medical doctors in their country of origin.


Did the reopening of Hanoi University in 1917-1918 give a new momentum to this regional influence? It seems difficult to say. The renewed institution was comprised of five schools: medicine, public works, administration, teaching, and agriculture-forestry. Despite students from Southern China being attracted to Hanoi particularly by medical studies, this assessment must be put into perspective: most of the Chinese, according to the French historian Daniel Hémery, would rather chose France, 3 or other Asian, European or American countries, instead of Indochina. The Indochinese University’s audience remained local, all the more so as no mention of a regional purpose was included as part of Governor General Albert Sarraut’s plan in 1917:

“I’ve established a Board for Higher Education whose mission is to prepare the creation, organize the system and formulate the curriculum of higher schools that will be opened in Indochina to French and Native students and will be gathered to constitute the Indochinese University.” 4


When the Business School (1920), the School of Applied Sciences (1922), the School of Fine Arts (1924),  the School of Veterinary Training (1928) and finally, a Law School (1931) opened, this local trend still remained. By 1929, 511 students frequented the university. About half of them came from Tonkin, the northern province of Indochina where Hanoi is located. Around one-quarter were from the South, Cochinchina, and between 10 percent and 15 percent were from Annam (central Vietnam). In a nutshell, the Indochinese University was above all else a Vietnamese University. It was neglected by the Cambodians and the Laotians, even though their lands were parts of French Indochina. As Buddhist education was preserved by the colonizers, they were taught in pagoda schools, inside or outside the colony, in Siam for instance.
This trend would become noticeable in the later colonial period, when in 1939-1940, 732 students were studying at Hanoi university (table 1).


French
Tonkin
Annam
Cochinchina
Cambodia
Laos
Chinese & Others


Sunday, 24 December 2017

Biography of Dr. Sam Rany, Cambodia

Dr. Sam Rany was born on March 11, 1982 in Kampot province, Cambodia. He is currently the Vice-Rector of the National University of Battambang (NUBB), which is a public university in the northwestern part of Cambodia. Dr. Rany is the former Director of the Institute of Foreign Languages at UBB, from September 2008 to May 2017. He has also been a co-director of the Confucius Institute of the National University of Battambang (CINUBB) since 2019. 

He earned his PhD in Higher Education Administration from the School of Educational Studies, University of Science Malaysia (USM) in 2016. His doctoral thesis is entitled "The Influence of Institutional Integration Factors on Students’ Intellectual Development: A Case Study of three Cambodian Public Universities". He obtained a Certificate of General Administration from the Royal School of Administration, Cambodia in May 2017, and he received a Certificate of E-Teacher Certificate of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) from Oregon University and a Certificate of Using Educational Technology in the English Language Classroom from Iowa State University, sponsored by the U.S. Embassy to Cambodia in 2010 and 2021 prospectively. He graduated with a Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees in Law (LL.B & LL.M) from the Royal University of Law and Economics (RULE), Cambodia in 2004 and 2007 respectively. His bachlelor thesis is entitled" State Responsibility in the International Law", and master thesis is entitled" The Notions of Goodfaith in the International Sale of Goods."
 
He has also been a lecturer at NUBB since 2008; he has worked closely with the US Embassy in terms of educational cooperation since 2009. He had hosted three US English Fellows, Mrs. Connie LeonardDr. Virginia Simmons, and Mr. Adam Aultowski, who had been sent by the US Embassy to work at the University of Battambang. He has successfully completed a two-year project with 25 disadvantaged students funded by the US Embassy, namely, the English Access Micro-scholarship Program from 2015 to 2017 at NUBB. He is also actively involved in some project coordinators' work, including Erasmus+, KOICA, JICA, USAID, and World Bank (HEIP). His areas of interest included English for Specific Purposes (ESP), Legal Studies, Public Policy and Public Administration, Cambodian Educational History, Higher Education Leadership and Administration, Educational Assessment, and other Social Science Research.



Wednesday, 9 November 2016

JENESYS 2016 Home-Stay Program for Young Cambodia Government Officials in OSAKI City


Japan (5-6 November 2016): It was my great pleasure and privilege to attend the homestay program organized by the JICE in Osaki City and Miyagi Prefecture. I and two other colleagues, Mr. Sun Sokhet and Va Vannak, from the Royal School of Administration had stayed with a Japanese family, Mr. Aoki Akira and Mrs. Aoki. Mr. Akira is retired high school teacher and a member of BoD of the Non Profit Organization (NPO) in Osaki. 

During our staying with their family, we have learned a lot about Japanese cultures, living styles, and other routine activities. The most remembered activities are playing with autism children, walking around the village, farming some vegetables, and practicing mediation (concentration). Our sincere thanks go to their family who accepted us to stay in their house and treated us very well.

#JENESYS 2016
#JICE
#CAMBODIA






Monday, 7 November 2016

Young Cambodian Government Officials attended JENSYS 2016 (2nd Batch, Politics)

Japan (November 17, 2016): Twenty five participants from the Royal School of Administration had attended the Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange for Students and Youths (JENESYS 2016) that had been organized by the Japan International Cooperation Center (JICE) on the Theme of Politics from November 1, 2016 to November, 2016. This program aims at providing a good cooperation and understanding of Japanese culture and society in order to strengthen the spirits of solidarity with Asia through youth exchange activities.

Out of 550 students in the Royal School of Administration, I was selected to attend this crucial program among other 24 participants  in Japan. I have obtained new knowledge and experiences of Japanese culture, public administration, national infrastructure, modernization, and people. I have attended one lecture on "National Public Employees in Japan" offered by Associate Professor Watanabe Yasuyuki, from the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), Japan. I have learned a lot from his perspectives and experiences how to reform the civil services in the country. Also, he mainly focused on the professional code ethics of the civil servants or national public employees and other regulations. Japan is a good model country in term of transparency and accountability. I also visited the National Diet of Japan (the House of Councillors), and Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affair. 

The most interestingly, I have visited the the region of MINAMI SANRIKU where was destroyed by Sunami on March 11, 2011. The counselor has shared experiences how to manage the national disasters and restore this region.

Moreover, I had experienced two days of home-stay program with a Japanese family in Osaki City. I have learned Onseb Somuries at the Sebsyokan Hotel.

Taking in this blogger, I would like to express my profound thanks to the JICE and Japanese government that provided me golden opportunities to explore Japanese culture, politics, and people. 












Sunday, 26 October 2014

CHINA: Foreign student scholarships spark anger as fees rise

FRANCE: Low fees but jobs needed to meet costs

SINGAPORE: Rising fees cloud international hub status

MALAYSIA: Loan defaulters barred from leaving

GLOBAL: Public higher education versus private

Issue No:340

At the tertiary level, public expenditure per student in both public and private institutions averaged US$9,221 in OECD countries in 2012, the Education at a Glance report says. But the amount varied from about US$2,000 in Chile to more than US$17,000 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden – the four countries where the share of private spending is small or negligible.

In all countries with available data, except Hungary and Latvia, public expenditure per student is greater for public than private institutions. But patterns in the allocation of public funds to public and private institutions differ, the OECD analysts say.

In Denmark and the Netherlands, at least 90% of students are enrolled in public universities and most public money goes to these institutions. In the two countries, private funds complement public spending to varying degrees although private expenditure is less than 6% of total spending on public and private institutions in Denmark but above 28% in the Netherlands.

In Belgium, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland and Sweden, public expenditure goes to both public and private institutions. Government allocations per student in some private institutions is at least 58% and more than 100% of the level of public spending per student in public universities.

However, these countries also have different participation patterns. In Hungary, Iceland and Sweden, at least 80% of students are enrolled in public universities, whereas in Belgium and Estonia, they are mainly in government-dependent private institutions. In all three first-mentioned nations, the share of expenditure on private tertiary institutions is below the OECD average, while in the remaining two countries, taxpayers’ money goes mainly to private universities.

Public expenditure on tertiary education amounts to nearly one-quarter of total public education spending on average across OECD countries. But in the OECD and partner countries, the percentages range from less than 16% in Korea, to 32% in Finland, 36% in Canada and 38% in Turkey.

Grants and loans to students

OECD research indicates that a robust financial support system is important for ensuring good outcomes for higher education students, and that the type of aid is also critical, the report says. A key question in many OECD countries is whether financial support for students should be provided primarily in the form of grants or loans. Advocates of student loans argue that these allow available resources to be spread further.

If the amount spent on grants were used to guarantee or subsidise loans instead, aid would be available to more students, and overall access to higher education would increase. Loans also shift some of the cost of education on to those who benefit most from higher education, namely the individual student, and reflect the high private returns of completing tertiary education.

Opponents argue that student loans are less effective than grants in encouraging low-income students to pursue further education. They also argue that loans may be less efficient than anticipated because of the various types of support provided to borrowers or lenders and the costs of administration and servicing.

Finally, the report notes that a high level of student debt may have adverse effects both for students and for governments if large numbers of students are unable to repay their loans.

Allocations to higher education

OECD countries spend an average of about 22% of their public budgets for tertiary education on support for students “and private entities”. In Australia, Chile, Denmark, Iceland, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the UK and the US, government support for students accounts for more than 25% of public spending on tertiary education.

Only Argentina, the Czech Republic and Indonesia spend less than 7% of total public spending on the tertiary sector in supporting their students. In the Czech Republic, subsidies for students’ grants are sent directly to institutions which are responsible for distributing them among students.

A dozen of the 36 countries for which data are available rely exclusively on scholarships, grants and transfer payments to private institutions. Iceland provides only student loans while other countries make a combination of grants and loans available. Both types of support are used extensively in Australia, Chile, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.

In general, the countries that offer student loans are also those in which public support for students comprises the largest proportion of all public spending on tertiary education. In most cases, these countries also spend an above-average proportion of their tertiary education budgets on grants and scholarships, the report says.

Monday, 20 October 2014

MYANMAR: Students to hold emergency meeting over education law

CHINA: Universities to get more autonomy

GLOBAL: How Germany managed to abolish university tuition fees